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작성자예스맨 조회 0회 작성일 2021-06-10 13:07:33 댓글 0


L.T.D.-love ballad

L.T.D.-love ballad
thekaliko : oh my God
Jacqueline Wong Sang : All time favorite.
ER N : Atlanta and The Chi
Bobbie Rogers : 1979 Macon Coliseum ❤️❤️❤️
aecastillo54 : This version, and George Benson's.......perfection.

LTD Bul Bul - Come we stay (Official Music Video)

Official Music Video for Come We Stay (She said) performed by LTD Bul Bul
audio produced by Teddy B, video directed by Steve Sugarfx DOPEST FILMS.
Meer Puoch : Wooow i luv the video
Simon Gatwech : Styler LTD proud of you my brother
Dol B Nhial : Keep it up
Jalas Bichiok : I love the video
Samuel Maker : Good guy

2-Minute Neuroscience: Long-Term Depression (LTD)

Long-term depression, or LTD, is a process by which synaptic connections between neurons are weakened. Although the functions of LTD are not completely understood, it may be important to memory formation---perhaps by resetting previous synaptic changes to allow for new memories to be formed via long-term potentiation (LTP). In this video, I discuss the best understood mechanism underlying LTD, which involves AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors.


Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss long-term depression, or LTD.

LTD is a process by which synaptic connections between neurons become weaker. It is the opposing process to long-term potentiation. Although the functions of LTD are not completely understood, it’s thought to be important to memory formation, perhaps by resetting previous synaptic changes to allow for new memories to be formed via long-term potentiation.

There are several different mechanisms by which LTD may occur, but the best understood of them involves the same glutamate receptors involved in long-term potentiation: NMDA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors are typically blocked by a magnesium ion, which is only removed if the postsynaptic neuron becomes sufficiently depolarized as can occur through activation of the AMPA receptor; when the block is removed, calcium is able to flow into the neuron, causing further depolarization. While long-term potentiation typically occurs after brief but high-intensity stimulation of a post-synaptic neuron, LTD can be caused by prolonged low-intensity stimulation or stimulation that occurs after the firing of an action potential. With the type of modest stimulation that results in LTD, there is not enough depolarization to cause widespread removal of the magnesium blockage of the NMDA receptor. However, there is enough to cause some NMDA receptors to allow calcium into the cell. This low level of calcium is insufficient to activate the enzymes that facilitate long-term potentiation, but it is thought to activate a cellular cascade that causes the removal of AMPA receptors. This reduces the number of glutamate receptors on the postsynaptic neuron and weakens the synapse.

LTD may also result in other changes that decrease the strength of synapses, like a decrease in the amount of glutamate released from the presynaptic neuron, and it also can involve other receptors like metabotropic glutamate receptors or other neurotransmitter receptors altogether.


Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM 2000. Principles of Neural Science, 5th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Sigurd Zha : great visuals and straight to the point, thanks
Martha : THANK YOU! :)
Alejandro Cerda : Great video, but sounds like you're saying simulation instead of stimulation. IDK if that's just me.
Metilation : So best method to invert this ?
Lorenzo Bisoffi : Great video, simple and straight to the point! thank you




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